BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND VALUE CREATION
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We monitor our environmental impact closely and use the best available technology in our production.
Emissions into air and water The bulk of our atmospheric emissions results from the energy generation required to produce pulp, high-yield pulp, and paperboard. Besides the climate impact of carbon dioxide, our key emissions into air consist of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, which cause acidification. We also measure particulate concentrations from our mills’ flue gases, and in the production of high-yield pulp, we monitor malodorous sulphur compounds. Our mills may also have local noise impacts. Our wastewater discharges are largely the result of our products’ production process. The key indicators to be monitored include the biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD, COD), the amount of nutrient discharges (phosphorus and nitrogen) with an impact on eutrophication, the amount of solids, and the chlorine-containing AOX compounds generated in the bleaching of pulp. Our mills’ impact on waterbodies is typically small compared to the diffuse source input attributable to agriculture and forestry as well as scattered settlement. In Finland, for instance, only 3–4% of nutrient emissions derive from the pulp and paper industry (the Finnish Forest Industries Federation). Deviations from environmental permit conditions We use the best available technology in our production and continuously monitor that our mills operate in compliance with the environmental certificates issued to them. Any deviations and the corrective measures pertaining to them are reported to the authorities. In 2022, Metsä Board’s mills recorded some cases in which permit conditions were exceeded at a monthly level. Our mill-specific emissions and deviations from environmental permit conditions are reported on pages 60–61.
Transport Given that the majority of our products is sold to countries other than Finland or Sweden, the transport distances are often long. We minimise the environmental impact of logistics with careful route planning and by developing more efficient operating methods. As far as possible, we favour the alternatives that generate the least amount of emissions, such as marine and rail transports instead of road transports. Measured as a share of our 2022 logistics costs, maritime transports accounted for 44% (39) of our transports, road transports for 37% (38), and rail transports for 5% (6), while 14% (17) of our transports were related to port and warehouse operations. Since 2022, some of the maritime transports departing from Kemi are carried out with lower-emission LNG vessels. Ves- sels with lower emissions have also been introduced in maritime transports departing from Helsinki for the Iberian Peninsula.
Metsä Board has started an environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure for a folding boxboard mill it is planning to build in Kaskinen, Finland. The environmental permit will set out the scope of operations and environmental impact.
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